EMANES Working Paper No 57: Exogenous vs. Endogenous Obstacles to Funding Female Entrepreneurs in MENA Countries

June 3, 2022
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Do female entrepreneurs in MENA countries face obstacles to funding their businesses, either through self-selection or discrimination? A literature review reveals controversial evidence thereof but, to date, no paper has tackled this funding issue for female entrepreneurs in MENA countries from a dynamic perspective.

Three pooled samples, from the 2013 and 2019 World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES), and a cohort over 2013-2020, include three North African countries (Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) and three Middle East countries (Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine); they document the financial behaviour of both owners and managers, according to gender.

EMANES Working Paper No 57: Exogenous vs. Endogenous Obstacles to Funding Female Entrepreneurs in MENA Countries
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