EMANES Working Paper: Financial Inclusion and Barriers to Funding Micro-Entrepreneurs in MENA Countries Prior to and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

March 31, 2023
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Factors detrimental to financial inclusion (account holding and borrowing) regarding female entrepreneurs arise both from the demand side of businesses, such as the absence of funding need versus self-selection despite account holding, and from the supply side of financial institutions, such as deficient financial infrastructure and discrimination towards loan applicants. A sequential model takes care of both the demand and the supply sides, including descriptive statistics prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, upon four MENA countries, namely Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia.